Improv Books: Reviews & Recommendations

LAST UPDATED: March 2024

I won’t hype this as a list of “best improv books.” There are dozens of improv manuals on the market, of varying length, content, and quality. I believe in reading widely: so-called “lesser” books can still teach you something, even if they only confirm the “better” books. So these are simply my opinions on the books I’ve read.

No book can ever replace the value of in-person training and on-stage experience. But reading widely expands your thinking and gives you new ideas to try.

This website, Improv Illusionist, is a resource for learning how to level up your physical improv skills. Check out the additional section below for deeper reading on physical theatre and related skills.

Level up your Physical Improv skills!

The Improv Illusionist by David Raitt - Book Cover

The Improv Illusionist is the first book dedicated to physical improv. Learn how to use object work, environment, and physicality in performance.

Table of Contents

Learning the Improv Illusion

A free series introducing the techniques of Physical Improv.

Important things to remember about improv books

  • Every book is a product of the author’s experience and viewpoint. Remember that it’s one person’s philosophy, and not the definitive answer on how YOU should do it. Test things for yourself. Find what works for you.
  • When you find an excellent book, you may want to put all its advice to use immediately. Instead, take it slow. Try one idea in your next set, then another.
  • Remember that, in improv, everything is situational. That means that some ideas will contradict others, sometimes within the same book. Contradictory ideas aren’t wrong — just different approaches.
  • Allow books to challenge you. If you’re dismissing or disagreeing with something, ask yourself why. Then think about how you could do it differently. The art form grows when we consciously build on or diverge from older ideas.
  • Revisit old books. What you can get out of them changes as your improv experience grows.

Do YOU have any favourite improv books that aren’t on this list? Please let me know! (Or leave a comment below.) I’d love to read and review them.

Learning the Improv Illusion

A free series introducing the techniques of Physical Improv.

The “Classic” Improv Books

These are older books, still in print and most often recommended. The community sometimes debates their writing quality. But it’s generally agreed these are the foundational improv books for every improviser.

Improvisation for the Theater
by Viola Spolin

Viola Spolin is internationally recognized as “The Mother of Improv.” Her teaching, exercises, and games have made immeasurable contributions to theatre. The Second City’s style of teaching and performance developed from her work. Spolin is a major reference for the development of my own workshops and teaching. Improvisation for the Theater is her best known work.

  • Pros: An extensive collection of exercises for environment and object work. If you want to master the tools of the Improv Illusionist, this is a key book.
  • Cons: May only be useful for workshops and rehearsals, since it’s mostly exercise descriptions, with short sections of teaching notes and theory. Very little about applying skills in the moment of a scene. (In her method, you’re supposed to learn how to do this yourself through solving the problem of the exercise.)
  • Best for: Essential for improv instructors and directors. Performers of every experience level should at least skim this.
  • Further reading: Maybe check out Theater Games for the Lone Actor, which adapts many of the same exercises for solo practice (although the text is almost exactly the same in most places).

Want to practice your environment and object work? Check out my list of improv exercises for physical skills.

Impro: Improvisation and the Theatre
Impro for Storytellers
by Keith Johnstone

If Spolin is the Mother of modern improv, then Keith Johnstone is at least its Godfather. He’s directed, taught, and written on the topic since the late 1950s. These two classic texts are a combination of practical advice, improv theory, and philosophy. While both include many exercises, Impro is seen as more theoretical, while Impro for Storytellers contains more games and a description of the “Theatresports” format.

  • Pros: Deep explorations of improv theory, spontaneous creativity, and the effects of fear on the performer. Excellent insights into Status and Narrative.
  • Cons: Many improvisers have little experience (or interest) in acting and drama. If that’s you, some parts of these books can be challenging. Readers often find Impro‘s section on “Masks & Trance” difficult to understand and put to use. (There may be some fear in not wanting to try it.)
  • Best for: Improvisers of every experience level, especially short-form performers. Impro has also found mainstream interest as a business book, through its exploration of status roles and creativity.

Truth in Comedy: The manual of improvisation
by Charna Halpern, Del Close, and Kim “Howard” Johnson

Truth in Comedy introduces “The Harold,” a format developed by Del Close in the years following his tenure as a performer and director at The Second City. Close argued that long-form improv can’t sustain itself with rapid-fire jokes and comic premises. By seeking the truth in a situation, we can get laughs incidentally, hence the book’s title. It is an important lesson for improvisers, which is a major reason the book is still recommended so often.

  • Pros: Good improv theory for beginners.
  • Cons: Constantly name-drops major celebrities, which intimidates new performers. Examples are light on practical application.
  • Best for: New improvisers, Harold performers. (More and deeper writing on The Harold has been published since.)
  • Further reading: Halpern’s sequel Art by Committee claims to be the “advanced” version, but many reviewers describe it as more of the same. Comes with a DVD of early career celebrity performances and a tribute to Del Close.

Learning the Improv Illusion

A free series introducing the techniques of Physical Improv.

Newer Improv Manuals

These are more recent improv books that are well-reviewed and frequently recommended. While the Classics have more theory, these usually take a more practical approach to scene work.

Improvise Freely
by Patti Stiles

A brilliant reconsideration of the so-called “rules” of improv, such as “Don’t ask questions” and “Always Yes And.” Stiles shows how several well-known rules actually confine improvisers and limit their creativity. She also offers alternative approaches for freeing performers and creating safer improv environments.

  • Pros: Thoughtful and practical ideas from an internationally respected improviser and teacher.
  • Cons: Some background experience or understanding of improv required. Absolute beginners may have a little trouble.
  • Best for: ALL improvisers, regardless of experience level. (Should be required reading.)

Small Cute Book of Improv
by Jill Bernard

Believe what you’ve already heard about this wonderful little book of general improv tips, enhanced with cute illustrations and folksy humour. Cements Bernard’s reputation as a rock-solid performer and teacher.

  • Pros: Very short and extremely readable, which makes it easy to review anytime. And the author sends it directly to you, with unique hand-drawn artwork on the envelope!
  • Cons: If anything, it’s too small. I’d love to read more from Bernard.
  • Best for: Broadly applicable to every performer.

Improvise: Scene from the Inside Out
by Mick Napier

Napier is a director and consultant for The Second City and founder of Chicago’s Annoyance Theatre. Improvise has useful ideas about developing scenes in the moment. The most recent edition includes Napier’s blog from the development of the Paradigm Lost revue for Second City. Great insight into the show-building process.

  • Pros: Outlines a very practical approach to building a scene. Also, one of the few improv books to offer solo exercises for improvisers to practice independently.
  • Cons: The approach seems easy, but newer improvisers may need more experience to really get it.
  • Best for: Experienced improvisers looking for a tune-up.
  • Further reading: Napier’s follow-up, Behind the Scenes, is more specifically about long-form improv. It seems more densely written, with exercises blended into the text. I’ll be reviewing it soon.

Process: An Improviser’s Journey
by Mary Scruggs and Michael J. Gellman

Both authors have served as program heads for The Second City Training Centre in various cities. Modelled after Stanislavsky’s An Actor Prepares, it follows several characters through a long-form improv workshop with “Gellman.” Exercises and teaching are demonstrated through the narrative.

  • Pros: Excellent insight into the process of creating improvised plays. How the exercises are used, and what they teach, is well described.
  • Cons: The narrative structure makes it hard to find exercises and information if you want to review them later. Highlight and take notes as you read.
  • Best for: Long-form performers who want to tell deeper stories. But I’d highly recommend this to ALL improvisers.

The Upright Citizens Brigade Comedy Improvisation Manual
by Matt Besser, Ian Roberts and Matt Walsh

Building on Del Close’s work, the Upright Citizens Brigade Theatre (UCB) popularized the concept of “Game of the Scene.” The Comedy Improvisation Manual is essentially a textbook for teaching their style of long-form improv.

  • Pros: Excellent breakdown of the UCB style. Includes many exercises for practicing the distinct elements. Describes several long-form formats well, especially The Harold. And where most improv books are almost completely text, this has colour illustrations on glossy paper.
  • Cons: The method seems a bit too formulaic. May give newer improvisers the impression that this is the only way to create scenes.
  • Best for: UBC-style long-form performers, newer improvisers who want to learn how to structure a scene.

Improvisation at the Speed of Life
by T. J. Jagodowski and David Pasquesi with Pam Victor

“TJ & Dave” are an acclaimed improv duo, both alumni of The Second City and iO. Their book is essentially transcribed from a series of conversations with co-author Pam Victor about their history and approach to long-form. Most of their theory relates to exploring character and relationship.

  • Pros: Expert advice on listening and being open to your partner.
  • Cons: A bit repetitive, which makes it feel like a slow read. Sticks to discussion of their method without generalizing, which could create copycats. No exercises.
  • Best for: Long-form performers, especially duos.

How to be the Greatest Improviser on Earth
by Will Hines

Hines is a highly regarded improviser, coach, and instructor with 20 years of long-form experience at UCB. His book teaches lessons learned through “breakthrough moments” in his career, such as “Be Present,” “Fight Well,” and “Be Brave.”

  • Pros: Great mix of theory, advice, scene transcripts, and exercises to help improvisers “get better.”
  • Cons: Not for new improvisers.
  • Best for: Experienced performers looking for a fresh approach.

The Improviser’s Way
by Katy Schutte

Schutte is a UK-based improviser, teacher, and a member of The Maydays. She has played and trained far-and-wide, and it shows. Subtitled A Longform Workbook, this is an excellent collection of practical advice, exercises (solo and group), and self-reflection on various aspects of improv technique, presented in a 12-week format. Lots of white space provided for you to write your own notes and ideas.

  • Pros: Lots of ideas for use both on and off stage. There’s a lot here about the improv lifestyle and how to be a well-rounded performer. The reflection aspect is excellent for helping learn from your reading.
  • Cons: Not for new improvisers.
  • Best for: Professional performers and those who want to be. Although it’s directed at longform, players of any style can get a lot out of it.

The Improv Handbook: The Ultimate Guide to Improvising in Comedy, Theatre, and Beyond
by Tom Salinsky and Deborah Frances-White

The Handbook seems written for a more international audience, or at least improvisers outside Chicago. Its main learning section is packed with practical teaching tips and improv theory. It also includes sections on improv history, performing in public, finding paying improv work, and interviews with significant members of the worldwide community. I also enjoyed the list of good/dumb but fun/never play games. There’s a heavy Keith Johnstone influence here (not a bad thing).

  • Pros: Bigger and more comprehensive than most books.
  • Cons: Maybe too comprehensive. The “How to Improvise” section aims more at teachers and might be too deep for a beginner to process.
  • Best for: Teachers looking for new ways to teach the basics. Also a good reference for experienced improvisers.

Improvising Now: A Practical Guide to Modern Improv
by Rob Norman

Rob Norman is a well-known teacher, coach, and director in the Toronto improv community. (He and I are former colleagues from The Second City Training Centre.) He also co-hosts the internationally popular improv podcast The Backline.

  • Pros: As the subtitle suggests, the book is full of suggestions and approaches to developing long-form scenes. It also includes a section about the business of improv.
  • Cons: Not for new improvisers. No exercises.
  • Best for: Experienced long-form performers.

The Second City Almanac of Improvisation
by Anne Libera and Second City

A collection of essays and transcribed interviews from performers, directors, and instructors at The Second City.

  • Pros: Excellent discussions of improv theory and history, from many viewpoints (performers, directors, producers).
  • Cons: Less practical. This book is not as well-known and may be difficult to find. Few exercises.
  • Best for: Improv theory nerds, especially with an interest in the Second City style.

Learning the Improv Illusion

A free series introducing the techniques of Physical Improv.

Books for Improv Teachers and Directors

Level up your practice with these books that discuss practical methods for teaching and developing improvisers.

How to Teach Improvised Comedy: Using the Science of Expertise to Develop Masterful Improvisors
by Jason Lewis

Worldwide, there is very little training for improv teachers. Most fall into the job without practice, theory, or feedback—they simply start teaching the games and techniques they learned. In this excellent book, Lewis offers advice on effective improv instruction, including designing drills, giving feedback, and classroom management. Reading this has reinvigorated my teaching practice after 20 years. Highly recommended.

  • Pros: A quick read, very practical, and supported by educational research. You will definitely pick up at least a few tips you can use.
  • Cons: Seems to be available in e-book format only, and the copy I downloaded had a few display problems on my Kindle app.
  • Best for: Anyone who teaches improv. Share this with everyone you know.

Directing Improv
by Asaf Ronen

Another excellent book of procedures and techniques for working with improvisers. Especially useful here are Ronen’s thoughts on giving notes and challenges, working with an ensemble to create new formats, and dealing with issues within a group. Includes chapters on working with tech and music, being a director and performer simultaneously, and working with children. Ronen also includes useful quotes and tips from interviews with many well-known improv directors.

  • Pros: Practical and detailed. Ronen has put much thought into nearly every aspect of the director’s job.
  • Cons: Not entirely helpful for first-time directors, since it doesn’t describe how and what to watch improvisers for when they work. You will need to bring your own solid understanding of your theory of improv.
  • Best for: Experienced directors who want to be more effective. Some sections are also useful for improv instructors.

Learning the Improv Illusion

A free series introducing the techniques of Physical Improv.

If you want to go deep into understanding movement and physical play, these books might be worth checking out. They’re not improv books, though some may use elements of improv for training. Try to find a summary of the book before investing, to see if it meets your needs and interest.

The Physical Comedy Handbook
by Davis Rider Robinson

A resource of techniques for physical comedy, from specifics (such as tripping and falling) to more broad subjects (like comic timing and group relationships). Includes some improv exercises to explore physical play and develop new material. Especially good for clowns — it includes several interviews with experienced physical comedy performers.

  • Pros: Includes a wide range of exercises, broken down for solos, duos, trios, and groups. Good advice on structuring and choreographing routines.
  • Cons: Descriptions of techniques like falling are hard to translate from words to actions. It might even be dangerous to try some of these without a trained instructor present.
  • Best for: Clowns and other highly physical performers, as a supplement to other professional training.

The Moving Body (Le Corps Poétique)
by Jacques Lecoq

Lecoq was a pioneer of teaching physical theatre. In 1956, he established L’École Internationale de Théâtre Jacques Lecoq in Paris, and it’s still in operation today. Lecoq heavily emphasized improvisation, and also taught movement technique, mime, clown, and bouffon. You can find classes in Lecoq technique worldwide.

  • Pros: A good overview of Lecoq’s history and ideas about physical theatre.
  • Cons: Only an overview, with few exercises other than descriptive examples of what he taught at the school. Not practical, but might give you enough to decide to take a Lecoq workshop.
  • Best for: Physical theatre actors. Also required reading for clowns and bouffons — you will almost certainly take a Lecoq workshop at some point in your training.

The Viewpoints Book
by Anne Bogart & Tina Landau

Viewpoints has its roots in dance but is also used in the theatre. It’s a framework for exploring various types of movement patterns and the dramatic effects they produce. (Some of these are tempo, gesture, and spatial relationship.) This book describes the framework, with exercises and methods for its use. Because Viewpoints are usually explored in rehearsal through improvisation, some improv teachers apply the concepts in their training.

  • Pros: The best overview of the framework from two of its chief developers. Lots of explanation and exercises.
  • Cons: This is a guide for directors more than actors. The exercises are all group activities — a solo reader won’t be able to put them into practice. The authors expressly state they’ve never done a production using open and unplanned Viewpoints, so the book contains no specific advice for improv theatre performers.
  • Best for: Improv directors and teachers. Good as a reference if you’re working with someone who uses Viewpoints.

Combat Mime
by J.D. Martinez

(WARNING: Improvising violence is dangerous and should always be done in slow-motion.) This book describes dozens of techniques for choreographing violence on stage, including illustrations for each.

  • Pros: If applied properly, these combat “illusions” could bring an element of realism even to slow-motion violence.
  • Cons: Intended for fight choreographers and stage directors, not improvisers. Even the author acknowledges that improvisation in staging violence is extremely dangerous.
  • Best for: Improvisers with a strict approach to performer safety. This is not a helpful resource if you’re not willing to practice A LOT and still commit to slow-motion movement.

Level up your Physical Improv skills!

The Improv Illusionist by David Raitt - Book Cover

The Improv Illusionist is the first book dedicated to physical improv. Learn how to use object work, environment, and physicality in performance.

Share your favourite improv books!

Got a favourite that’s not on this list? Agree/Disagree with my opinions here? Please share your comments below and help us make this the most comprehensive list of improv books out there!

David Raitt - Headshot

Hi, I'm David Raitt. I've been performing and teaching improv and sketch comedy for over 25 years.
MY MISSION: To help improvisers everywhere (re-)learn the power of environment, object work, and physicality in character and performance.

Learning the Improv Illusion

A free series introducing the techniques of Physical Improv.

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Anke Impro

Good list! For beginners, the Visual Guide to Improv by Harvard and Wahlberg is a great introduction to the most central principles. For more experienced players, it is a reminder of the essence of improv, and a joy to read for all!

David Raitt

Thanks for the suggestion! I’ll add it to my reading list.

FYI to anyone else: here’s the link to the Visual Guide’s website:

Leica, Aus

Hello from Brisbane!
What a list! I am also a fan of newly released Improvise Freely by Patti Stiles ☺️ I also saw your podcast review but wonder do you have any audiobook suggestions? Or know if any of these are available as audio?

I'd love your thoughts, please comment.x